Annular Salzmann degeneration: Avoiding perturbations and pitfalls in phacoemulsification surgery.

Salzmann degeneration,phacoemulsification surgery.
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Nov;41(11):2580-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.10.037.

Annular Salzmann degeneration: Avoiding perturbations and pitfalls in phacoemulsification surgery.

Abstract

We highlight potential problems and pitfalls in cases of Salzmann nodular degeneration by reporting the case of an 84-year-old man with reduced visual acuity due to particularly extensive bilateral Salzmann nodules and moderate cataracts. Large annular Salzmann lesions were removed by superficial keratectomy in each eye. The reproducibility and accuracy of keratometry and biometry improved significantly, and uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed 4 weeks after the keratectomy. The phacoemulsification procedures were routine other than the development of pronounced epithelial bullae in the area of Salzmann nodule excision. At final review, the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye.

J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Nov;41(11):2580-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.10.037.

Annular Salzmann degeneration: Avoiding perturbations and pitfalls in phacoemulsification surgery.

Abstract

We highlight potential problems and pitfalls in cases of Salzmann nodular degeneration by reporting the case of an 84-year-old man with reduced visual acuity due to particularly extensive bilateral Salzmann nodules and moderate cataracts. Large annular Salzmann lesions were removed by superficial keratectomy in each eye. The reproducibility and accuracy of keratometry and biometry improved significantly, and uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed 4 weeks after the keratectomy. The phacoemulsification procedures were routine other than the development of pronounced epithelial bullae in the area of Salzmann nodule excision. At final review, the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye.

Abstract

We highlight potential problems and pitfalls in cases of Salzmann nodular degeneration by reporting the case of an 84-year-old man with reduced visual acuity due to particularly extensive bilateral Salzmann nodules and moderate cataracts. Large annular Salzmann lesions were removed by superficial keratectomy in each eye. The reproducibility and accuracy of keratometry and biometry improved significantly, and uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed 4 weeks after the keratectomy. The phacoemulsification procedures were routine other than the development of pronounced epithelial bullae in the area of Salzmann nodule excision. At final review, the uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye.

Removal of intracameral metallic foreign body by encapsulation with an intraocular lens injector

metallic foreign body,intraocular lens injector
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Dec;41(12):2605-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.10.046.

Removal of intracameral metallic foreign body by encapsulation with an intraocular lens injector.

Abstract

We describe a technique in which a metallic foreign body in the anterior chamber is safely removed by encapsulation with an intraocular lens (IOL) injector instead of with a forceps or a magnet. A forceps sometimes provides inadequate grip over an intraocular foreign body and requires a large incision, which may damage the surrounding tissue. A magnet is an alternative to a forceps; however, magnets are ineffective in removing nonmagnetic foreign bodies and are seldom available in every operating room. We propose that the IOL injector can be used as an effective tool for extracting both magnetic and nonmagnetic intracameral foreign bodies

J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Dec;41(12):2605-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.10.046.

Removal of intracameral metallic foreign body by encapsulation with an intraocular lens injector.

Abstract

We describe a technique in which a metallic foreign body in the anterior chamber is safely removed by encapsulation with an intraocular lens (IOL) injector instead of with a forceps or a magnet. A forceps sometimes provides inadequate grip over an intraocular foreign body and requires a large incision, which may damage the surrounding tissue. A magnet is an alternative to a forceps; however, magnets are ineffective in removing nonmagnetic foreign bodies and are seldom available in every operating room. We propose that the IOL injector can be used as an effective tool for extracting both magnetic and nonmagnetic intracameral foreign bodies

J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Dec;41(12):2605-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.10.046.

Abstract

We describe a technique in which a metallic foreign body in the anterior chamber is safely removed by encapsulation with an intraocular lens (IOL) injector instead of with a forceps or a magnet. A forceps sometimes provides inadequate grip over an intraocular foreign body and requires a large incision, which may damage the surrounding tissue. A magnet is an alternative to a forceps; however, magnets are ineffective in removing nonmagnetic foreign bodies and are seldom available in every operating room. We propose that the IOL injector can be used as an effective tool for extracting both magnetic and nonmagnetic intracameral foreign bodies

Injectable suture device for intraocular lens fixation

Injectable suture,intraocular lens fixation
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Dec;41(12):2609-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.11.013.

Injectable suture device for intraocular lens fixation.

Abstract

We describe a surgical technique for scleral fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) using a 24-gauge injectable polypropylene suture delivery system. A 3-piece PC IOL is inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye. Two sclerotomies are made 1.5 mm posterior to the limbus using a microvitreoretinal blade. The 24-gauge injector delivers a preformed suture loop into the eye with the double-armed needles still external to the eye. Each polypropylene IOL haptic is directed through the loop using microforceps. The suture loop is tightened around the haptic, and the attached needles are used to fixate the IOL to the sclera and close the sclerotomies simultaneously. This technique has been used in an ex vivo porcine eye and in an aphakic patient. In the latter, the IOL was quickly fixated to the sclera and maintained a stable position postoperatively.

J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Dec;41(12):2609-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.11.013.

Injectable suture device for intraocular lens fixation.

Abstract

We describe a surgical technique for scleral fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) using a 24-gauge injectable polypropylene suture delivery system. A 3-piece PC IOL is inserted into the anterior chamber of the eye. Two sclerotomies are made 1.5 mm posterior to the limbus using a microvitreoretinal blade. The 24-gauge injector delivers a preformed suture loop into the eye with the double-armed needles still external to the eye. Each polypropylene IOL haptic is directed through the loop using microforceps. The suture loop is tightened around the haptic, and the attached needles are used to fixate the IOL to the sclera and close the sclerotomies simultaneously. This technique has been used in an ex vivo porcine eye and in an aphakic patient. In the latter, the IOL was quickly fixated to the sclera and maintained a stable position postoperatively.

Clinical Outcomes After SMILE and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted LASIK for Myopia and Myopic Astigmatism: A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study

Cornea. 2016 Feb;35(2):210-6. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000000707.

Clinical Outcomes After SMILE and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted LASIK for Myopia and Myopic Astigmatism: A Prospective Randomized Comparative Study.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To compare the clinical outcomes of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism.

METHODS:

In this prospective, randomized, comparative study, SMILE surgery was performed in 113 eyes with a mean spherical equivalent (MSE) of -5.22 ± 1.70 diopters (D) and FS-LASIK was performed in 84 eyes with an MSE of -5.18 ± 1.93 D. Contrast sensitivity and uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities were measured preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Higher-order aberrations were evaluated preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively.

RESULTS:

At postoperative day 1, the uncorrected distance visual acuity in the FS-LASIK group was better (P < 0.05), whereas no statistically significant difference was found at 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.9). There was no significant difference in terms of logMAR corrected distance visual acuity and MSE during the 6 months of follow-up between the SMILE and FS-LASIK groups (all P > 0.05). The contrast sensitivity in the SMILE group was lower at 1 day and 1 week postoperatively (all P < 0.05). The spherical aberration at 6 mm diameter at 6 months postoperatively was lower (P < 0.05) in the SMILE group (0.12 ± 0.22 μm) than in the FS-LASIK group (0.28 ± 0.26 μm).

CONCLUSIONS:

Both FS-LASIK and SMILE procedures achieved good visual outcomes in the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. SMILE had a lower induction rate of spherical aberration at 6 months postoperatively in the analysis of 6 mm diameter than that of FS-LASIK.

CONCLUSIONS:

Both FS-LASIK and SMILE procedures achieved good visual outcomes in the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. SMILE had a lower induction rate of spherical aberration at 6 months postoperatively in the analysis of 6 mm diameter than that of FS-LASIK.

Use of a hydrogel sealant in epithelial ingrowth removal after laser in situ keratomileusis

hydrogel sealant,epithelial ingrowth,laser insitu keratomileusis,lasik
J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015 Dec;41(12):2768-71. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.11.024.

Use of a hydrogel sealant in epithelial ingrowth removal after laser in situ keratomileusis.

Abstract

We describe 2 cases in which clinically significant epithelial ingrowth was removed by debridement and followed by the use of a hydrogel sealant (Resure) to seal the flap edge. In both cases, the epithelial ingrowth was seen after otherwise uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis retreatment. The visual outcomes were good with no recrudescence of interface epithelium.

Abstract

We describe 2 cases in which clinically significant epithelial ingrowth was removed by debridement and followed by the use of a hydrogel sealant (Resure) to seal the flap edge. In both cases, the epithelial ingrowth was seen after otherwise uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis retreatment. The visual outcomes were good with no recrudescence of interface epithelium.

Abstract

We describe 2 cases in which clinically significant epithelial ingrowth was removed by debridement and followed by the use of a hydrogel sealant (Resure) to seal the flap edge. In both cases, the epithelial ingrowth was seen after otherwise uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis retreatment. The visual outcomes were good with no recrudescence of interface epithelium.

Abstract

We describe 2 cases in which clinically significant epithelial ingrowth was removed by debridement and followed by the use of a hydrogel sealant (Resure) to seal the flap edge. In both cases, the epithelial ingrowth was seen after otherwise uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis retreatment. The visual outcomes were good with no recrudescence of interface epithelium.

Abstract

We describe 2 cases in which clinically significant epithelial ingrowth was removed by debridement and followed by the use of a hydrogel sealant (Resure) to seal the flap edge. In both cases, the epithelial ingrowth was seen after otherwise uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis retreatment. The visual outcomes were good with no recrudescence of interface epithelium.

Ocular involvement of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: incidence and risk factors

eye,ocular,Staphylococcus aureus,bacteremia,incidence,risk factors
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Jan 11. pii: AAC.02651-15. [Epub ahead of print]

Ocular involvement of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: incidence and risk factors.

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) often leads to ocular infection including endophthalmitis and chorioretinitis. However, the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of ocular infection complicated by SAB are largely unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence and risk factors of ocular involvement in a prospective cohort of patients with SAB at a tertiary-care hospital. Ophthalmologists reviewed the fundoscopic findings and classified the ocular infection as endophthalmitis or chorioretinitis. During the 5 year study period, 1,109 patients had SAB and 612 (55%) who underwent ophthalmic examination within 14 days after SAB were analyzed. Of these 612 patients, 56 (9%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 7-12%) had ocular involvement; 15 (2.5%) with endophthalmitis and 41 (6.7%) with chorioretinitis. In multivariate analysis, infective endocarditis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.74; 95% CI, 2.25-14.64) and metastatic infection (aOR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.29-4.39) were independent risk factors for ocular involvement. Of the 47 patients with ocular involvement who could communicate, only 17 (36%) had visual disturbance. Two-thirds (10/15) of the patients with endophthalmitis were treated with intravitreal antibiotics combined with parenteral antibiotics, whereas all the patients with chorioretinitis were treated with systemic antibiotics only. No one became blinded. Among 42 patients with follow-up assessment available, the ocular lesion improved in 29 (69%) but remained stationary in the others. Ocular involvement was independently associated with 30-day mortality after SAB. Ocular involvement is not uncommon in patients with SAB. Routine ophthalmic examination should be considered in patients with infective endocarditis or metastatic infection caused by SAB.

Abstract

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) often leads to ocular infection including endophthalmitis and chorioretinitis. However, the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of ocular infection complicated by SAB are largely unknown. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence and risk factors of ocular involvement in a prospective cohort of patients with SAB at a tertiary-care hospital. Ophthalmologists reviewed the fundoscopic findings and classified the ocular infection as endophthalmitis or chorioretinitis. During the 5 year study period, 1,109 patients had SAB and 612 (55%) who underwent ophthalmic examination within 14 days after SAB were analyzed. Of these 612 patients, 56 (9%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 7-12%) had ocular involvement; 15 (2.5%) with endophthalmitis and 41 (6.7%) with chorioretinitis. In multivariate analysis, infective endocarditis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.74; 95% CI, 2.25-14.64) and metastatic infection (aOR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.29-4.39) were independent risk factors for ocular involvement. Of the 47 patients with ocular involvement who could communicate, only 17 (36%) had visual disturbance. Two-thirds (10/15) of the patients with endophthalmitis were treated with intravitreal antibiotics combined with parenteral antibiotics, whereas all the patients with chorioretinitis were treated with systemic antibiotics only. No one became blinded. Among 42 patients with follow-up assessment available, the ocular lesion improved in 29 (69%) but remained stationary in the others. Ocular involvement was independently associated with 30-day mortality after SAB. Ocular involvement is not uncommon in patients with SAB. Routine ophthalmic examination should be considered in patients with infective endocarditis or metastatic infection caused by SAB.

Factors Influencing Intraocular Pressure Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis with Flaps Created by Femtosecond Laser or Mechanical Microkeratome

lasik,Intraocular Pressure,Laser In Situ Keratomileusis,Femtosecond Laser,Mechanical Microkeratome
PLoS One. 2016 Jan 29;11(1):e0147699. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147699.

Factors Influencing Intraocular Pressure Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis with Flaps Created by Femtosecond Laser or Mechanical Microkeratome.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to describe factors that influence the measured intraocular pressure (IOP) change and to develop a predictive model after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a femtosecond (FS) laser or a microkeratome (MK). We retrospectively reviewed preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative medical records in 2485 eyes of 1309 patients who underwent LASIK with an FS laser or an MK for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Data were extracted, such as preoperative age, sex, IOP, manifest spherical equivalent (MSE), central corneal keratometry (CCK), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intended flap thickness and postoperative IOP (postIOP) at 1, 6 and 12 months. Linear mixed model (LMM) and multivariate linear regression (MLR) method were used for data analysis. In both models, the preoperative CCT and ablation depth had significant effects on predicting IOP changes in the FS and MK groups. The intended flap thickness was a significant predictor only in the FS laser group (P < .0001 in both models). In the FS group, LMM and MLR could respectively explain 47.00% and 18.91% of the variation of postoperative IOP underestimation (R2 = 0.47 and R2 = 0.1891). In the MK group, LMM and MLR could explain 37.79% and 19.13% of the variation of IOP underestimation (R2 = 0.3779 and 0.1913 respectively). The best-fit model for prediction of IOP changes was the LMM in LASIK with an FS laser.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to describe factors that influence the measured intraocular pressure (IOP) change and to develop a predictive model after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with a femtosecond (FS) laser or a microkeratome (MK). We retrospectively reviewed preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative medical records in 2485 eyes of 1309 patients who underwent LASIK with an FS laser or an MK for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Data were extracted, such as preoperative age, sex, IOP, manifest spherical equivalent (MSE), central corneal keratometry (CCK), central corneal thickness (CCT), and intended flap thickness and postoperative IOP (postIOP) at 1, 6 and 12 months. Linear mixed model (LMM) and multivariate linear regression (MLR) method were used for data analysis. In both models, the preoperative CCT and ablation depth had significant effects on predicting IOP changes in the FS and MK groups. The intended flap thickness was a significant predictor only in the FS laser group (P < .0001 in both models). In the FS group, LMM and MLR could respectively explain 47.00% and 18.91% of the variation of postoperative IOP underestimation (R2 = 0.47 and R2 = 0.1891). In the MK group, LMM and MLR could explain 37.79% and 19.13% of the variation of IOP underestimation (R2 = 0.3779 and 0.1913 respectively). The best-fit model for prediction of IOP changes was the LMM in LASIK with an FS laser

Medically unexplained visual loss in a specialist clinic: a retrospective case-control comparison

Conversion disorder,Functional vision loss,Medically unexplained vision loss,Neuro-ophthalmology,Psychological,Visual reduction
J Neurol Sci. 2016 Feb 15;361:272-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2015.12.045. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Medically unexplained visual loss in a specialist clinic: a retrospective case-control comparison.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To compare the clinical and demographic characteristics of adult patients with nonorganic or medically unexplained visual loss (MUVL) to those with other common conditions presenting to a neuro-ophthalmology clinic.

METHODS:

Case-control design: a retrospective review of medical notes on a consecutive case series of 49 patients assessed at the King’s College Hospital neuro-ophthalmology clinic with unexplained visual loss and matched with the next assessed patient identified from clinic records. Patients presented post-symptom onset with a mean clinical course of 30months (SD=67months) and standard clinical examination used to confirm diagnoses, alongside ancillary investigations if required.

RESULTS:

Seventy-two percent (n=36) of MUVL patients were female. In comparison with patients with organic visual disorders, MUVL cases presented with significantly higher rates of bilateral (cf. unilateral) visual impairment (41%, n=20), premorbid psychiatric (27%, n=13) as well as functional (24%, n=12) diagnoses and psychotropic medication usage (22%, n=11). Medically unexplained cases were significantly more likely to report preceding psychological stress (n=9; 18%).

CONCLUSIONS:

Medically unexplained visual impairment may be regarded as part of the spectrum of medically unexplained disorders seen in the general hospital setting. Research is needed to determine long-term outcomes and effective tailored interventions.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Conversion disorder; Functional vision loss; Medically unexplained vision loss; Neuro-ophthalmology; Psychological; Visual reduction

CONCLUSIONS:

Medically unexplained visual impairment may be regarded as part of the spectrum of medically unexplained disorders seen in the general hospital setting. Research is needed to determine long-term outcomes and effective tailored interventions.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Conversion disorder; Functional vision loss; Medically unexplained vision loss; Neuro-ophthalmology; Psychological; Visual reduction

Conjunctival impression cytology versus routine tear function tests for dry eye evaluation in contact lens wearers

Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC),contact lens,dry eye,lens wear time
J Cytol. 2015 Oct-Dec;32(4):261-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-9371.171242.

Conjunctival impression cytology versus routine tear function tests for dry eye evaluation in contact lens wearers.

Abstract

AIMS:

Prolonged contact lens wear is often accompanied by dryness of the eyes. The aim of this study was to compare conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and tear film tests such as tear film break up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test for dry eye evaluation in contact lens wearers and measure their correlation with dry eye symptoms.

SETTING:

A case control study was done at three referral eye centers.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The eyes of 230 contact lens users were compared to 250 eyes of age- and sex-matched controls. Participants were recruited based on their response to a questionnaire of dry eye symptoms, (Dry Eye Scoring System, DESS(©)) and measurements of TBUT, Schirmer test, and CIC was done. A correlation analysis between symptom severity and tear film tests was performed. Pearson’s coefficient, R(2) > 0.5 was considered significant.

RESULTS:

As compared to controls (r (2) = 0.010), Nelson grade correlated significantly with dry eye symptoms (r (2) = 0.765), among cases. However, there was moderate correlation between dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, and TBUT (r (2) = 0.557 and 0.530, respectively) among cases and a weak correlation among controls (r (2) = 0.130 and 0.054, respectively). The sensitivity of TBUT was 86.4%, specificity was 82.4%, positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 4.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-5.85)], and negative LR was 0.09. The sensitivity of the Schirmer test was 48.2%, specificity 88%, LR 2.12 (95% CI 1.48-2.96), and negative LR 0.83.

CONCLUSION:

CIC correlates better than Schirmer and TBUT with dry eye symptoms. It may be the most appropriate test for dry-eye evaluation in contact lens wearers.

KEYWORDS:

Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC); contact lens; dry eye; lens wear time

CONCLUSION:

CIC correlates better than Schirmer and TBUT with dry eye symptoms. It may be the most appropriate test for dry-eye evaluation in contact lens wearers.

KEYWORDS:

Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC); contact lens; dry eye; lens wear time

Ophthalmia neonatorum treatment and prophylaxis: IPOSC global study

AAPOS,Chlamydia trachomatis,Conjunctivitis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae,Ophthalmia neonatorum; Prophylaxis
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016 Jan 26. [Epub ahead of print]

Ophthalmia neonatorum treatment and prophylaxis: IPOSC global study.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Characteristics of ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) amongst paediatric ophthalmologists remain unclear. The purpose of this current study is to examine the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of ON cases presenting to members of the American Association of Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS).

METHODS:

An email containing a web link to a survey was sent to all members of AAPOS. The questionnaire examined the incidence of ON, etiology, diagnostic methods, treatment, and prophylaxis of the disease in different countries around the world.

RESULTS:

Two hundred and ninety-one ophthalmologists answered the questionnaire. Most were from North America (52.94 %). One hundred and seventy-six (60.69 %) ophthalmologists encountered 0-5 cases of ON per year. The most common pathogens causing ON was Chlamydia trachomatis (35.37 %). Two hundred and forty-two (85.21 %) treat empirically when encountering ON during the first 10 days of life and 205 (75.09 %) after the first 10 days of life. In both cases, erythromycin was the most common first line of treatment. Two hundred and twenty-two (78.72 %) ophthalmologists replied that prophylactic treatment is required in their country. The most common agent for prophylaxis was erythromycin ointment (71.50 %).

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that the incidence of ON per year per practitioner is 0-5 cases, the most common etiology is C. trachomatis, and most infants receive prophylaxis and treatment.

RESULTS:

Two hundred and ninety-one ophthalmologists answered the questionnaire. Most were from North America (52.94 %). One hundred and seventy-six (60.69 %) ophthalmologists encountered 0-5 cases of ON per year. The most common pathogens causing ON was Chlamydia trachomatis (35.37 %). Two hundred and forty-two (85.21 %) treat empirically when encountering ON during the first 10 days of life and 205 (75.09 %) after the first 10 days of life. In both cases, erythromycin was the most common first line of treatment. Two hundred and twenty-two (78.72 %) ophthalmologists replied that prophylactic treatment is required in their country. The most common agent for prophylaxis was erythromycin ointment (71.50 %).

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that the incidence of ON per year per practitioner is 0-5 cases, the most common etiology is C. trachomatis, and most infants receive prophylaxis and treatment.

KEYWORDS:

AAPOS; Chlamydia trachomatis; Conjunctivitis; IPOSC; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Ophthalmia neonatorum; Prophylaxis