Surgical treatment and optical coherence tomographic evaluation for accidental laser-induced full-thickness macular holes.

Eye (Lond). 2017 Mar 10. doi: 10.1038/eye.2017.41. [Epub ahead of print]
Surgical treatment and optical coherence tomographic evaluation for accidental laser-induced full-thickness macular holes.

Qi Y1, Wang Y1, You Q1, Tsai F2, Liu W1.
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Abstract
PurposeTo report OCT appearance and surgical outcomes of full-thickness macular holes (MHs) accidentally caused by laser devices.Patients and methodsThis retrospective case series included 11 eyes of 11 patients with laser-induced MHs treated by pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, and gas or silicone oil tamponade. Evaluations included a full ophthalmic examination, macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and fundus photography. Main outcome measures is MH closure and final visual acuity; the secondary outcome was the changes of retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor layer evaluated by sequential post-operative SD-OCT images.ResultsFive patients were accidentally injured by a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser and six patients by handheld laser. MH diameters ranged from 272 to 815 μm (mean, 505.5±163.0 μm) preoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from a mean of 0.90 logMAR (range, counting finger-8/20) preoperatively to a mean of 0.34 logMAR (range, a counting finger-20/20) postoperatively (P=0.001, t=4.521). Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) achieved a BCVA better than 10/20. Ten patients had a subfoveal hyperreflectivity and four patients had a focal choroidal depression subfoveal preoperatively. At the last follow-up, all 11 eyes demonstrated the following: closure of the macular hole, variable degrees of disruption of external limiting membrane (ELM) and outer photoreceptor ellipsoid and interdigitation bands. In 10 eyes, the disruption was in the form of focal defects in the outer retina. After surgery, the subfoveal hyperreflectivity and focal choroidal depression remained.ConclusionAccidental laser-induced full-thickness macular holes can be successfully closed with surgery. Inadvertent retinal injury from laser devices, especially handheld laser injury has occurred with increasing frequency in recent years. However, there is a paucity of data regarding these types of injuries, mostly in the form of case reports. We hereby reported 11 eyes of 11 patients with laser-induced macular holes treated by vitrectomy. All the macular holes closed after surgery and the corresponding visual acuities significantly improved postoperatively.Eye advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.41.

Contribution of Mutations in Known Mendelian Glaucoma Genes to Advanced Early-Onset Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

Glaucoma, Genes, Mutations

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Mar 1;58(3):1537-1544. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-21049.
Contribution of Mutations in Known Mendelian Glaucoma Genes to Advanced Early-Onset Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

Zhou T1, Souzeau E1, Siggs OM1, Landers J1, Mills R1, Goldberg I2, Healey PR3, Graham S4, Hewitt AW5, Mackey DA6, Galanopoulos A7, Casson RJ7, Ruddle JB8, Ellis J9, Leo P9, Brown MA9, MacGregor S10, Sharma S1, Burdon KP11, Craig JE1.
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Abstract
PURPOSE:
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) with Mendelian inheritance are caused by mutations in at least nine genes. Utilizing whole-exome sequencing, we examined the disease burden accounted for by these known Mendelian glaucoma genes in a cohort of individuals with advanced early-onset POAG.
METHODS:
The cases exhibited advanced POAG with young age of diagnosis. Cases and examined local controls were subjected to whole-exome sequencing. Nine hundred ninety-three previously sequenced exomes of Australian controls were called jointly with our dataset. Qualifying variants were selected based on predicted pathogenicity and rarity in public domain gene variant databases. Case-control mutational burdens were calculated for glaucoma-linked genes.
RESULTS:
Two hundred eighteen unrelated POAG participants and 103 nonglaucomatous controls were included in addition to 993 unexamined controls. Fifty-eight participants (26.6%) harbored rare potentially pathogenic variants in known glaucoma genes. Enrichment of qualifying variants toward glaucoma was present in all genes except WDR36, in which controls harbored more variants, and TBK1, in which no qualifying variants were detected in cases or controls. After multiple testing correction, only MYOC showed statistically significant enrichment of qualifying variants (odds ratio [OR] = 16.62, P = 6.31×10-16).
CONCLUSIONS:
Rare, potentially disease-causing variants in Mendelian POAG genes that showed enrichment in our dataset were found in 22.9% of advanced early-onset POAG cases. MYOC variants represented the largest monogenic cause in POAG. The association between WDR36 and POAG was not supported, and the majority of POAG cases did not harbor a potentially disease-causing variant in the remaining Mendelian genes.

Analysis of Ocular Firework-Related Injuries and Common Eye Trauma: a 5-year Clinical Study.

Eye Trauma, Fireworks, Injuries

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Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2017 Mar 10. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-123515. [Epub ahead of print]
Analysis of Ocular Firework-Related Injuries and Common Eye Traumata: a 5-year Clinical Study.

Frimmel S1, Theusinger OM2, Kniestedt C1.
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Abstract
Background A comparative study of eye injuries related to fireworks or acts of violence around New Year’s Eve and the Swiss National Day on August 1st. The two groups were compared with respect to the overall numbers of eye accidents within the period of review. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of emergency consultations at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich with eye accidents around the Swiss National Day on August 1st and New Year’s Eve over the last 5 years. Two subgroups were formed: (1) Firework-related eye traumata, (2) Eye injuries due to acts of violence. The groups were analysed by age, gender, active participant or bystander, eye involved, severity of trauma (from clinical findings), surgical interventions, time of follow-up and visits, visual acuity and outcome. Results The study included 97 patients (100 eyes) with 74 male (76 %) and 23 female (24 %) victims. After filtering out 67 common traumata cases (all unilateral), 17 patients (18 eyes) with firework-related injuries and 13 patients (15 eyes) with damage due to an act of violence remained. Firework injuries accounted for 18 % of cases (65 % men); eye injuries caused by an act of violence accounted for 15 % of cases (92 % men). In the fireworks group, women were significantly older than men (mean age men 32 ± 14 years versus women 38 ± 16 years, p = 0.002). 65 % of cases were bystanders. The two subgroups contained 30 patients (33 eyes) with 22 left eyes (67 %, p < 0.001). The anterior segment was most frequently involved (79 %), significantly more often than the posterior part of the eye (p < 0.001). The posterior segment was injured more often in the fireworks group (28 %), than in the violence group (13 %). 87 % of the victims in the group of common traumata were mild trauma, 10 % moderate and 3 % severe. In the fireworks group the distribution was 53 % mild, 12 % moderate and 35 % severe, in the violence group 46 %, 23 % and 31 % respectively. Severe trauma cases occurred significantly more often around the New Year, with 36 % versus August 1st with 18 % (p = 0.0028). They are more often related to firework injuries than caused by violence (40 % versus 33 %). In summary, 7 victims (23 %) needed 8 interventions, with 3 having additional issues with their intraocular pressure. Full final visual acuity was noted in 88 %, which was alike in the two subgroups. On the contrary common traumata happened significantly more often around August 1st (66 %) than New Year (34 %; p < 0.001). Conclusions The number of injured eyes in the two subgroups of fireworks and violence was twice as high around New Year’s Eve than around the Swiss National Day. If the two events were combined, eye injuries were caused by an act of violence in 45 % and by fireworks in 55 % of cases. Injuries from fireworks can be decreased by professional fireworks. Both types of accident can be decreased by public awareness.

Can Commercially Available Handheld Retinal Cameras Effectively Screen Diabetic Retinopathy?

camera, diabetes, imaging, retinopathy, screening, telemedicine

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jan;11(1):135-137. doi: 10.1177/1932296816682033. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
Can Commercially Available Handheld Retinal Cameras Effectively Screen Diabetic Retinopathy?
Cuadros J1, Bresnick G1.
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Abstract
Organizations that care for people with diabetes have increasingly adopted telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening (TMDRS) as a way to increase adherence to recommended retinal exams. Recently, handheld retinal cameras have emerged as a low-cost, lightweight alternative to traditional bulky tabletop retinal cameras. Few published clinical trials have been performed on handheld retinal cameras. Peer-reviewed articles about commercially available handheld retinal cameras have concluded that they are a usable alternative for TMDRS, however, the clinical results presented in these articles do not meet criteria published by the United Kingdom Diabetic Eye Screening Programme and the American Academy of Ophthalmology. The future will likely remedy the shortcomings of currently available handheld retinal cameras, and will create more opportunities for preventing diabetic blindness.

KEYWORDS:
camera; diabetes; imaging; retinopathy; screening; telemedicine

J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017 Jan;11(1):135-137. doi: 10.1177/1932296816682033. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
Can Commercially Available Handheld Retinal Cameras Effectively Screen Diabetic Retinopathy?
Cuadros J1, Bresnick G1.
Author information
Abstract
Organizations that care for people with diabetes have increasingly adopted telemedicine-based diabetic retinopathy screening (TMDRS) as a way to increase adherence to recommended retinal exams. Recently, handheld retinal cameras have emerged as a low-cost, lightweight alternative to traditional bulky tabletop retinal cameras. Few published clinical trials have been performed on handheld retinal cameras. Peer-reviewed articles about commercially available handheld retinal cameras have concluded that they are a usable alternative for TMDRS, however, the clinical results presented in these articles do not meet criteria published by the United Kingdom Diabetic Eye Screening Programme and the American Academy of Ophthalmology. The future will likely remedy the shortcomings of currently available handheld retinal cameras, and will create more opportunities for preventing diabetic blindness.

KEYWORDS:
camera; diabetes; imaging; retinopathy; screening; telemedicine

Long-term efficacy of combined phacoemulsification plus trabeculectomy versus phacoemulsification plus excimer laser trabeculotomy.

cataract surgery, phacoemulsification, excimer laser, trabeculotomy

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2017 Mar 6. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-100291. [Epub ahead of print]
Long-term efficacy of combined phacoemulsification plus trabeculectomy versus phacoemulsification plus excimer laser trabeculotomy.
Töteberg-Harms M1, Wachtl J1, Schweier C2, Funk J1, Kniestedt C1.
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Abstract
Background Combined cataract and glaucoma procedures, and minimally-invasive glaucoma surgery in particular, have gained increasing interest over the past few years. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term efficacy of combined phaco-trabeculectomy (Phaco-Trab) and combined phacoemulsification plus excimer laser trabeculotomy (Phaco-ELT). Patients and Methods Retrospective, non-randomised, comparative, interventional case series of consecutive patients after Phaco-Trab and Phaco-ELT at the University Hospital of Zurich and the Talacker Eye Center Zurich in Switzerland. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of glaucoma plus vision-impairing coexisting cataract. Primary outcome measures were change in intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucoma drugs (AGDs), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 1 year and 4 years after the procedure. Secondary outcome measures were surgical complications and requirement of postoperative interventions. Success was defined based on the criteria of the Tube-versus-Trabeculectomy study. Results Mean age was 76.1 ± 8.6 years (29.2 % males; 47.8 % right eyes). Phaco-Trab (n = 62) decreased median IOP from 22.8 to 13.0 at 1 year and to 14.0 mmHg at 4 years. AGDs were reduced from 2 drugs to 0 AGDs at 1 year and 4 years. Median BCVA improved from 0.2 logMAR to 0.0 logMAR at 1 year and 4 years. Phaco-ELT (n = 51) lowered median IOP from 19.0 to 15.0 at 1 year and to 14.0 mmHg (p = 0.002) at 4 years. AGDs were reduced from 2 drugs to 1 AGD at 1 year and 4 years (p = 0.002). BCVA improved from 0.4 logMAR to 0.1 logMAR after 1 year and 4 years. If not stated otherwise, all changes compared to baseline were highly significant (p < 0.001). No perioperative complications occurred; postoperative interventions were performed in 74 % of Phaco-Trab patients. Conclusion Both surgical procedures reduced IOP and AGDs and improved BCVA significantly and persistently during the entire follow-up period of 4 years with a good safety profile. This study validates Phaco-ELT as an option when post-operative target pressure in the mid-teens would be adequate, whereas Phaco-Trab would be the treatment of choice when IOP in the low teens is desired.