Association Between Eyelid Laxity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Eyelid Laxity, Sleep Apnea

2017 Sep 7. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.3263. [Epub ahead of print]

Association Between Eyelid Laxity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

While much has been reported on the relationship between floppy eyelid syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the diagnostic criteria of floppy eyelid syndrome are often subjective and vague.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the association between OSA and quantitative markers of eyelid laxity or secondary ocular surface disease in a sleep clinic population.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This investigation was a cross-sectional observational study at the Center for Sleep Medicine at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Participants were individuals referred for overnight polysomnography from March 1 to August 30, 2015.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Eyelid laxity and ocular surface disease were assessed on bedside ophthalmologic examination. The presence and severity of OSA were determined from polysomnography results. Initial correlation between OSA and ocular surface and eyelid markers was calculated through bivariate linear regression analysis, and the association between ocular symptoms was obtained through bivariate ordered logistic regression. Analysis was repeated adjusting for known associations between OSA and sex, age, body mass index, and medical comorbidities through multivariable analysis.

RESULTS:

In total, 201 individuals (402 eyes) were enrolled in the study. Their mean (SD) age was 53.2 (13.5) years, 43.3% (n = 87) were female, 56.7% (n = 114) were of white race/ethnicity, 26.9% (n = 54) were black/African American, 4.0% (n = 8) were Asian, 8.0% (n = 16) were multiracial or other, and 4.5% (n = 9) were of unknown race/ethnicity, with 21.9% (n = 44) of all individuals self-identifying as Hispanic and 75.1% (n = 151) self-identifying as non-Hispanic. After adjustment, no association was observed between OSA severity and an eyelid laxity score (regression coefficient, 0.85; 95% CI, -0.33 to 0.62; P = .40) or an ocular surface score (regression coefficient, 1.09; 95% CI, -0.32 to 0.29; P = .93). Through subset analysis, male sex was associated with a higher ocular surface score, while older age and diabetes were associated with a higher eyelid laxity score. Only one patient (0.5%) exhibited findings of floppy eyelid syndrome.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Among individuals referred for overnight polysomnography, quantitative markers of eyelid laxity were not associated with the presence or severity of OSA. Subset analysis suggests that prior studies may have been limited by confounding variables or the technique of identifying eyelid laxity.

Eyelid Laxity, Sleep Apnea

 

PMID:

Association of Disease Location and Treatment With Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Eye and Ocular Adnexal Region

Survival, Diffuse, B-Cell Lymphoma,  Eye, Ocular, Adnexal Region

2017 Sep 7. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.3286. [Epub ahead of print]

Association of Disease Location and Treatment With Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Eye and Ocular Adnexal Region.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the ocular region is rare, and the utility of surgery and radiation therapy remains unresolved.

OBJECTIVE:

To explore the clinical characteristics and determine factors associated with overall survival in primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) and ocular adnexal (OA)-uveal DLBCL.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This retrospective analysis included 396 patients with ophthalmic DLBCL from January 1, 1973, through December 31, 2014, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The median follow-up was 39.0 months (interquartile range, 5.1-72.9 months). All patients diagnosed with primary DLBCL of the eye or retina (PVRL) or the eyelid, conjunctiva, choroid, ciliary body, lacrimal gland, or orbit (OA-uveal lymphoma) were included. Patients diagnosed at autopsy or with additional neoplastic disease were excluded.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Patient demographic characteristics, disease location, treatment modalities, and overall survival.

RESULTS:

Forty-seven patients with PVRL (24 women [51.1%] and 23 men [48.9%]) and 349 with OA-uveal DLBCL (192 women [55.0%] and 157 men [45.0%]) had a similar mean (SD) age at diagnosis (69.6 [12.3] vs 66.1 [17.7] years). No difference in the use of surgery or radiation therapy by location was found. For all PVRL and OA-uveal DLBCL, a Cox proportional hazards regression model affirmed that age older than 60 years was associated with increased risk for death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-4.0; P < .001). Gross total resection was associated with a decreased risk for death (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9; P = .04), whereas radiation therapy was not. The 5-year overall survival among patients with PVRL was 41.4% (SE, 8.6%); among those with OA-uveal DLBCL, 59.1% (SE, 2.8%; Mantel-Cox test, P = .007). Median overall survival was lower in PVRL (38.0 months; 95% CI, 14.2-61.8 months) than in OA-uveal DLBCL (96.0 months; 95% CI, 67.3-124.7 months; Mantel-Cox test, P = .007). In addition, median overall survival in ophthalmic-only disease was higher (84.0 months; 95% CI, 63.2-104.8 months) than that in primary DLBCL that occurred outside the central nervous system and ophthalmic regions (46.0 months; 95% CI, 44.4-47.6 months; Mantel-Cox test, P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

The 5-year survival in PVRL vs OA-uveal DLBCL differed by 17.7%, and overall survival was greater in ophthalmic DLBCL than in DLBCL located outside the central nervous system and ophthalmic regions. Younger age (≤60 years) and gross total resection were associated with increased survival.

Survival, Diffuse, B-Cell Lymphoma,  Eye, Ocular Adnexal Region
PMID:
28880986
DOI:
10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.3286

Stroke risk among adult patients with third, fourth or sixth cranial nerve palsy: a Nationwide Cohort Study

Stroke, risk, adult, third, fourth or sixth cranial nerve palsy, Cohort Study

2017 Aug 3. doi: 10.1111/aos.13488. [Epub ahead of print]

Stroke risk among adult patients with third, fourth or sixth cranial nerve palsy: a Nationwide Cohort Study.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study sought to determine whether isolated third, fourth and sixth cranial nerve palsies (NPs) are associated with increased short- and long-term risk of a subsequent stroke.

METHODS:

This was a nationwide retrospective propensity score-matched cohort study. A cohort of patients with NP (n = 466) and a randomly selected, propensity-matched control cohort (n = 2281) were extracted from the Korean national insurance claim database. Subjects were tracked for 5 years total, subdivided into periods of 0-1 years, 1-3 years and 3-5 years. We assessed the risk of stroke using hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustments using Cox regression at different time intervals.

RESULTS:

The median follow-up was 3.1 years. Stroke developed in 18.9% of the NP cohort and 7.5% of the control cohort. Stroke risk after NP was highest in the first year [14.7 per 100 person-year at 0-1 years (HR = 6.6), 3.1 per 100 person-year at 1-3 years (HR = 1.6) and 4.3 per 100 person-year at 3-5 years (HR = 2.8)]. Each type of NP was also associated with stroke risk: within 0-1 years, stroke risk was increased in third (HR = 7.6), fourth (HR = 6.0) and sixth (HR = 5. 84) NPs. In the 3- to 5-year period, risk was increased in sixth (HR = 4.7) and fourth (HR = 3.3) NPs, but not third (HR = 0.6) NPs.

CONCLUSION:

Patients in the NP cohort were more likely to have a stroke than those in the matched control cohort; the increased risk was both time- and cranial nerve-dependent.

Stroke, risk, adult, third, fourth or sixth cranial nerve palsy, Cohort Study

KEYWORDS:

cranial nerve palsy; fourth nerve palsy; sixth nerve palsy; stroke; third nerve palsy

Comparison of Clinical Trial and Systematic Review Outcomes for the 4 Most Prevalent Eye Diseases

Clinical Trial,Review, Outcomes,  Eye Diseases

2017 Aug 3. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.2583. [Epub ahead of print]

Comparison of Clinical Trial and Systematic Review Outcomes for the 4 Most Prevalent Eye Diseases.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Suboptimal overlap in outcomes reported in clinical trials and systematic reviews compromises efforts to compare and summarize results across these studies.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine the most frequent outcomes used in trials and reviews of the 4 most prevalent eye diseases (age-related macular degeneration [AMD], cataract, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and glaucoma) and the overlap between outcomes in the reviews and the trials included in the reviews.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This cross-sectional study examined all Cochrane reviews that addressed AMD, cataract, DR, and glaucoma; were published as of July 20, 2016; and included at least 1 trial and the trials included in the reviews. For each disease, a pair of clinical experts independently classified all outcomes and resolved discrepancies. Outcomes (outcome domains) were then compared separately for each disease.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Proportion of review outcomes also reported in trials and vice versa.

RESULTS:

This study included 56 reviews that comprised 414 trials. Although the median number of outcomes per trial and per review was the same (n = 5) for each disease, the trials included a greater number of outcomes overall than did the reviews, ranging from 2.9 times greater (89 vs 30 outcomes for glaucoma) to 4.9 times greater (107 vs 22 outcomes for AMD). Most review outcomes, ranging from 14 of 19 outcomes (73.7%) (for DR) to 27 of 29 outcomes (93.1%) (for cataract), were also reported in the trials. For trial outcomes, however, the proportion also named in reviews was low, ranging from 19 of 107 outcomes (17.8%) (for AMD) to 24 of 89 outcomes (27.0%) (for glaucoma). Only 1 outcome (visual acuity) was consistently reported in greater than half the trials and greater than half the reviews.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

Although most review outcomes were reported in the trials, most trial outcomes were not reported in the reviews. The current analysis focused on outcome domains, which might underestimate the problem of inconsistent outcomes. Other important elements of an outcome (ie, specific measurement, specific metric, method of aggregation, and time points) might have differed even though the domains overlapped. Inconsistency in trial outcomes may impede research synthesis and indicates the need for disease-specific core outcome sets in ophthalmology.

Clinical Trial,Review, Outcomes,  Eye Diseases

Clinical Trial, Review, Outcomes,  Eye Diseases

PMID:
28772305
DOI:
10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.2583

Clinical Trial, Review, Outcomes,  Eye Diseases

Management of postoperative inflammation after cataract and complex ocular surgeries

Management,postoperative inflammation,cataract, ocular surgeries

 

Send to Br J Ophthalmol. 2017 Aug 3. pii: bjophthalmol-2017-310324. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310324. [Epub ahead of print] Management of postoperative inflammation after cataract and complex ocular surgeries: a systematic review and Delphi survey. Aptel F1, Colin C2, Kaderli S3, Deloche C3, Bron AM4, Stewart MW5, Chiquet C1. Author information Abstract Prevention and management of postoperative ocular inflammation with corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been evaluated in several randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, neither consensus regarding the efficacies of different regimens nor established guidelines are currently available. This has resulted in different practice patterns throughout the world. A systematic literature review found that for the management of postcataract inflammation nepafenac produced a positive outcome in three of three RCTs (3/3), as did ketorolac (1/1), bromfenac (7/7), loteprednol (3/3) and difluprednate (6/6), but not flurbiprofen (0/1). A single study found that betamethasone produced inconclusive results after retinal detachment (RD) surgery; ketorolac was effective (1/1) after vitrectomy, but triamcinolone was ineffective (0/1) after trabeculectomy. A two-round Delphi survey asked 28 international experts to rate both the inflammatory potential of different eye surgeries and their agreement with different treatment protocols. They rated trabeculectomy, RD surgery and combined phacovitrectomy as more inflammatory than cataract surgery. Vitrectomies for macular hole or epiretinal membrane were not deemed more inflammatory than cataract surgery. For trabeculectomy, they preferred to treat longer than for cataract surgery (NSAID + corticosteroid three times a day for 2 months vs 1 month). For vitrectomy alone, RD surgery and combined phacovitrectomy, the panel preferred the same treatment as for cataract surgery (NSAID + corticosteroid three times a day for 1 month). The discrepancy between preferred treatment and perception of the eye’s inflammatory status by the experts for RD and combined vitreoretinal surgeries highlights the need for RCTs to establish treatment guidelines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

Management,postoperative inflammation,cataract, ocular surgeries

KEYWORDS: Clinical Trial; Drugs; Glaucoma; Retina; Treatment Surgery PMID: 28774934 DOI: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2017-310324

Corticosteroid-Related Adverse Events Systematically Increase with Corticosteroid Dose in Noninfectious Intermediate, Posterior, or Panuveitis: Post Hoc Analyses from the VISUAL-1 and VISUAL-2 Trials

Corticosteroid,Adverse Events,Dose,Noninfectious, Intermediate, Posterior, Panuveitis,VISUAL-1 , VISUAL-2 Trials

2017 Jul 6. pii: S0161-6420(17)30359-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.06.017. [Epub ahead of print]

Corticosteroid-Related Adverse Events Systematically Increase with Corticosteroid Dose in Noninfectious Intermediate, Posterior, or Panuveitis: Post Hoc Analyses from the VISUAL-1 and VISUAL-2 Trials.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Chronic use of corticosteroids for the treatment of uveitis has been linked with drug-associated toxicity and adverse events (AEs). This study examines the association between corticosteroid dosage and incidence rates of corticosteroid-related AEs.

DESIGN:

A post hoc analysis of the VISUAL-1 and VISUAL-2 placebo-controlled clinical trials.

PARTICIPANTS:

The clinical trials consisted of adults with active (VISUAL-1) and inactive (VISUAL-2) noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis. Patients were randomized to receive adalimumab or placebo and underwent a protocol-defined mandatory taper to discontinue their oral corticosteroids.

METHODS:

Adverse event data were collected at each visit and included an assessment of the corticosteroid relationship by the investigator. A longitudinal Poisson regression model was estimated controlling for time-dependent corticosteroid dose, age, sex, prior oral corticosteroid dose, prior topical corticosteroid use, and concomitant immunosuppressive drug use. Only patients randomized to placebo were considered.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

The primary outcome measure was the frequency of AEs.

RESULTS:

The incidence rates of corticosteroid-related AEs among placebo patients during the prednisone treatment period in VISUAL-1 was statistically higher than after discontinuation (454.2 per 100 patient-years [PY] vs. 36.1 per 100 PY, incident rate ratio = 12.6, P < 0.001). Incidence rate ratios among VISUAL-2 patients were similarly high (317.5 per 100 PY vs. 41.1 per 100 PY, incident rate ratio = 7.7, P < 0.001). Based on the Poisson multivariate longitudinal Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model, each 10 mg increase in prednisone dose is associated with a 1.5- and 2.6-fold increase (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001) in the rate of corticosteroid-related AEs in VISUAL-1 and VISUAL-2, respectively. This implies in turn that a patient with active uveitis taking 60 mg/day of prednisone will experience, on average, an additional 10.1 (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.3-14.5; P < 0.001) corticosteroid-related AEs per year compared with a patient taking 10 mg/day, whereas a patient with inactive uveitis taking 35 mg/day of prednisone will experience, on average, an additional 23.5 (95% CI, 7.6-52.7; P = 0.05) corticosteroid-related AEs per year compared with a patient taking 10 mg/day.

CONCLUSIONS:

Evidence from VISUAL-1 and VISUAL-2 suggests that the incidence rates of corticosteroid-related AEs increase systematically with corticosteroid dose.

PMID:
28689898

Corticosteroid,Adverse Events,Dose,Noninfectious, Intermediate, Posterior,Panuveitis,VISUAL-1 , VISUAL-2 Trials

DOI:
10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.06.017

Disinfection of Tonometers

Disinfection ,Tonometers

2017 Jul 11. pii: S0161-6420(17)31677-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.05.033. [Epub ahead of print]

Disinfection of Tonometers: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the efficacy of various disinfection methods for reusable tonometer prisms in eye care and to highlight how disinfectants can damage tonometer tips and cause subsequent patient harm.

METHODS:

Literature searches were conducted last in October 2016 in the PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases for original research investigations. Reviews, non-English language articles, nonophthalmology articles, surveys, and case reports were excluded.

RESULTS:

The searches initially yielded 64 unique citations. After exclusion criteria were applied, 10 laboratory studies remained for this review. Nine of the 10 studies used tonometer prisms and 1 used steel discs. The infectious agents covered in this assessment include adenovirus 8 and 19, herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2, human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis C virus, enterovirus 70, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. All 4 studies of adenovirus 8 concluded that after sodium hypochlorite (dilute bleach) disinfection, the virus was undetectable, but only 2 of the 4 studies found that 70% isopropyl alcohol (e.g., alcohol wipes or soaks) eradicated all viable virus. All 3 HSV studies concluded that both sodium hypochlorite and 70% isopropyl alcohol eliminated HSV. Ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, dilute bleach, and mechanical cleaning all lack the ability to remove cellular debris completely, which is necessary to prevent prion transmission. Therefore, single-use tonometer tips or disposable tonometer covers should be considered when treating patients with suspected prion disease. Damage to tonometer prisms can be caused by sodium hypochlorite, 70% isopropyl alcohol, 3% hydrogen peroxide, ethyl alcohol, water immersion, ultraviolet light, and heat exposure. Disinfectants can cause tonometer tips to swell and crack by dissolving the glue that holds the hollow tip together. The tonometer tip cracks can irritate the cornea, harbor microbes, or allow disinfectants to enter the interior of the tonometer tip.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sodium hypochlorite (dilute bleach) offers effective disinfection against adenovirus and HSV, the viruses commonly associated with nosocomial outbreaks in eye care. Tonometer prisms should be examined regularly for signs of damage.

Disinfection ,Tonometers

Risk of Intraocular Bleeding With Novel Oral Anticoagulants Compared With Warfarin

Risk, Intraocular Bleeding, Anticoagulant, Warfarin

2017 Jul 6. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.2199. [Epub ahead of print]

Risk of Intraocular Bleeding With Novel Oral Anticoagulants Compared With Warfarin: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

It is unclear if the risk of intraocular bleeding with novel oral anticoagulants differs compared with warfarin.

OBJECTIVE:

To characterize the risk of intraocular bleeding with novel oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin.

DATA SOURCES:

A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken in an academic medical setting. MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for randomized clinical trials published up until August 2016. This search was supplemented by manual bibliography searches of identified trials and other review articles.

STUDY SELECTION:

Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were phase 3 randomized clinical trials, enrolled patients with atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism, compared a novel oral anticoagulant (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, or edoxaban) with warfarin, and recorded event data on intraocular bleeding. Data on intraocular bleeding were pooled using inverse-variance, weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

The PRISMA guidelines were used for abstracting data and assessing quality. Independent extraction was performed by 2 investigators.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

Intraocular bleeding events and associated risk ratio for novel oral anticoagulants compared with warfarin.

RESULTS:

Twelve trials investigating 102 627 patients were included. Randomization to novel oral anticoagulants was associated with a 22% relative reduction in intraocular bleeding compared with warfarin (risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61-0.99). There was no significant heterogeneity observed (I2 = 4.8%, P = .40). Comparably lower risks of intraocular bleeding with novel oral anticoagulants were seen in subgroup analyses, with no significant difference according to the indication for anticoagulation (P for heterogeneity = .49) or the novel oral anticoagulant type (P for heterogeneity = .15). Summary estimates did not differ materially when random-effects meta-analytic techniques were used.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

These results suggest that novel oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of intraocular bleeding by approximately one-fifth compared with warfarin. Similar benefits were seen in both patients with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. Our data have particular relevance for patients at higher risk of spontaneous retinal and subretinal bleeding. These findings may also have important implications in the perioperative period, in which the use of novel oral anticoagulants may be superior. Future studies are required to better characterize the optimal management of patients with both ophthalmic disease and cardiovascular comorbidities requiring anticoagulation.

PMID:
28687831
DOI:
10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.2199

Prevalence of Noninfectious Uveitis in the United States: A Claims-Based Analysis.

Prevalence ,Noninfectious Uveitis,United States
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2016 Sep 8. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.3229. [Epub ahead of print]

Prevalence of Noninfectious Uveitis in the United States: A Claims-Based Analysis.

Abstract

IMPORTANCE:

Noninfectious uveitis (NIU) is a collection of intraocular inflammatory disorders that may be associated with significant visual impairment. To our knowledge, few studies have investigated NIU prevalence overall or stratified by inflammation location, severity, presence of systemic conditions, age, or sex.

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate NIU prevalence using a large, retrospective, administrative claims database.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:

This analysis used the OptumHealth Reporting and Insights database to estimate 2012 NIU prevalence. Analysis was conducted in September 2016. The large administrative insurance claims database includes 14 million privately insured individuals in 69 self-insured companies spanning diverse industries. Included in the study were patients with NIU with 2 or more uveitis diagnoses on separate days in 2012 and continuous enrollment in a health plan for all of 2012 and categorized by inflammation site.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:

We estimated overall NIU prevalence by inflammation site, severity, sex, and age. Patients with anterior NIU were categorized by the presence of systemic conditions.

RESULTS:

Of the approximately 4 million eligible adult patients, approximately 2.1 million were women, and of the 932 260 children, 475 481 were boys. The adult prevalence of NIU was 121 cases per 100 000 persons (95% CI, 117.5-124.3). The pediatric NIU prevalence was 29 cases per 100 000 (95% CI, 26.1-33.2). Anterior NIU accounted for 81% (3904 cases) of adult NIU cases (98 per 100 000; 95% CI, 94.7-100.9) and 75% (207 cases) of pediatric NIU cases (22 per 100 000; 95% CI, 19.3-25.4). The prevalences of noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis were, for adults, 1 (95% CI, 0.8-1.5), 10 (95% CI, 9.4-11.5), and 12 (95% CI, 10.6-12.7) per 100 000, respectively, and for pediatric patients, 0 (95% CI, 0.1-1.1), 3 (95% CI, 1.8-4.1), and 4 (95% CI, 2.9-5.6) per 100 000, respectively. The prevalence of NIU increased with age and was higher among adult females than males. Application of these estimates to the US population suggests that NIU affected approximately 298 801 American adults (95% CI, 290 512-307 324) and 21 879 children (95% CI, 19 360-24 626) in 2015.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:

The estimated prevalence of NIU was 121 cases per 100 000 for adults (95% CI, 117.5-124.3) and 29 per 100 000 for children (95% CI, 26.1-33.2). Prevalence was estimated using administrative claims from a commercially insured population, which may have a different prevalence than other segments of the US population. A better understanding of the prevalence of NIU will help to determine the number of patients affected.

Thymus involvement in myasthenia gravis: Epidemiological and clinical impacts of different self-tolerance breakdown mechanisms

Thymus, Thymus involvement, myasthenia gravis
J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Sep 15;298:58-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.07.002. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Thymus involvement in myasthenia gravis: Epidemiological and clinical impacts of different self-tolerance breakdown mechanisms.

Abstract

The reasons for the abrogation of self-immunological tolerance in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may be different between those with concomitant thymic hyperplasia or thymoma, and those with no evidence of thymic involvement. We conducted a retrospective observational case series study to investigate the epidemiology as well as the clinical, serologic, and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of individuals diagnosed as having MG. We found that the average age at MG onset of patients with either thymic hyperplasia or thymoma was much younger (by ~20years) than that of MG patients without thymic involvement. Thymic hyperplasia was more common in females than males. There were no differences in the rates of ocular MG vs. generalized MG among those three study groups. There were also no group differences in the rates of neuromuscular junction disfunction, as observed on EMG or by the results of serology tests for acetyl choline receptor antibody. Interestingly, only patients without thymic involvement had other autoimmune diseases, and most of them were females. The patients with other coexisting autoimmune disease had a similar age at MG onset as the other patients with no thymic involvement. These results shed light on the impact of epidemiological and clinical factors that result from different mechanisms of self-immunological tolerance breakdown that occurs in MG.

Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Myasthenia gravis; Thymic hyperplasia; Thymoma